The vocabulary contains 1178 meaning-word pairs ("entries") corresponding to core LWT meanings from the recipient language Hup. The corresponding text chapter was published in the book Loanwords in the World's Languages. The language page Hup contains a list of all loanwords arranged by donor languoid.
|Word form||LWT code||Meaning||Core list||Borrowed status||Source words|
The limited data and lack of any text record has made the dating of words in the database difficult. Relative dates were established using several criteria. First, comparison of word lists across the Nadahup family, and particularly the reconstructions in Martins (2005), were used to determine whether a given word was cognate across two or more Nadahup languages (and thus appears to reconstruct to Proto-Nadahup, Proto-Hup-Yuhup-Dâw, etc.); however, these lists included only a fraction of the words in the database, and intra-family borrowing cannot always be ruled out. Other words, particularly loanwords of Portuguese origin, are dated within a general range of 100 to 10 years ago, on the basis of their formal accommodation and the best guess at when the concept became known to Hup speakers generally (for example, Hup speakers obtained items like knives and axes through trade long before they entered into direct contact with non-Indians, whereas other things like ice, wheat bread, and canned beer are very recent and still rarely encountered).
Determining the likelihood of borrowing and the immediate sources of loans was constrained by the information available. Ramirez’ Tukano dictionary (1997) is by far the most extensive available dictionary of any East Tukanoan language, but it still is quite limited, and includes almost no Portuguese borrowings or names for non-native concepts. The loanword status of many Hup words in the database is thus given as ‘no evidence for borrowing’ where no Tukanoan form was available for comparison (except in the few cases where there was some other indication that the word might be borrowed). Without a good documentation of Portuguese loans into Tukano, it was also impossible in many cases to determine whether borrowings of Portuguese origin in Hup entered via Tukano or directly from Portuguese. The lack of detailed lexical data on Hup’s sister languages also made intra-family comparison difficult.
All Hup data comes my fieldwork (2000-2004).
Yuhup, Dâw, Nadëb (all Nadahup languages):
Nheengatú (Lingua Geral):