a word from Vocabulary Gurindji
|Comments on word:||jukuputu, julkuputu,juutu also|
The dates given here are only very rough guesses.
1. PNy Proto-Pama-Nyungan: 4000 BCE +/- 1000y
Stages of higher level sub-groups of PNy follow but ate not used in this database.
2. PNGY Proto-Ngumpin-Yapa: 1000 BCE -/- 500y
Sound change: lateralisation r>rl (McConvell & Laughren 2004; McConvell & Smith 2005)
3. E. Ngumpin pre-Lenition and Lenition 1000BCE-1000CE +/-500y
(a)Pre-lenition: 1000 BCE-500CE +/-500y
(a) Eastern Ngumpin Lenition p,k>w;j>y; rt>r 500CE-1000CE +/- 500y
(individual changes may have had different periods)
4. Post-lenition 1000 – 1880 CE
(a) Loanwords from northern Non-Pama-Nyungan languages (unlenited)
(b) Loanwords from western NGY languages (unlenited)
(c) Loanwords from Mudburra/Karranga (with –a augmentation)
These may have had different periods but overlapping. They also continued into the following period 5.
5. Post-contact 1880-2000 CE
Includes Pidgin and English loans.
|Proto-Victoria river Eastern Ngumpin (500–1000)|